Polybius and Animal Farm
The theory of Polybius, which stated that descendants of the aristocrats had fallen into extravagance due to their greed of wealth and power and was what degenerated the society into oligarchy, shared some similarity with the corruption and degeneration of Napoleon’s program portrayed in Animal Farm. The federal government’s degeneration in Animal Farm and the relationship in between society and people shown in Polybius’ theory of political cycle were comparable. Polybius asserted that aristocracy became oligarchy when leaders fall under decadence and greed. The pigs shown in Animal Farm were deteriorated and governed for the advantage of themselves instead of for the others. For that reason, degeneration of the society was because of the corruption of the aristocrats. The pigs that showed up as leaders in Animal Farm paralleled the corruption and degenerations of upper class and oligarchy accounted by Polybius.
Polybius saw the reason for degeneration of aristocracy and oligarchy was due to the fact that rulers stopped their duties to rule the neighborhood with reasoning and factor. Such degeneration led upper class to turn into oligarchies. This only occurred when the rulers stopped ruling for the benefit of the society and indulged convivial excess, “They desert their duties some to greed of gain and unethical money making, others to extravagance in wine and the convivial excess which accompanies it” (Polybius, Hist. 6.8). Polybius thought that when rulers became damaged, they took the idea of satisfying their own greed with entertainment, satisfaction, and high-ends and gave up their duties of judgment reasonably and rationally. These types of rulers got wealth immorally and lacked ethical reasoning, which Polybius stated were signs of corruption and degeneration of an upper class into oligarchy. Polybius highly mentioned that the aristocracy was degenerated and damaged into oligarchy when the descendants of the leaders put themselves on the higher position, above the law, in order to meet their own satisfactions. He said that rulers who had fallen out of being reasonable and into corruption with appetite of authority and genetic succession, which was referred as superabundance, were no longer have equality with the people of the society; nor part of the neighborhood of law, “They ought to meet no denial in the pursuit of their amours, however lawlessness” (Polybius, Hist. 6.7). Oligarchs were never ever denied in their desire to stand above the law for the advantage of themselves rather than including themselves under the law. As an outcome, the government with lack of law resorted in violence and mayhem. Although this quote was not evident in degeneration of upper class, however kingship, because all the degeneration shared some resemblance with each other, this phenomenon can likewise be applied to the degeneration of upper class. Therefore, the acts of the corrupted leaders, who indulged their extreme appetites, resulted in a great inequality in between the people of the society and the rulers and the birth of inequality in the society offered individuals a sense of unfairness.
Polybius described force and fear as significant elements of the corruption of the upper class and oligarchy. Violence was the only method which political modifications were developed. Such method of ruling over a community by instilling worry and force was usually seen in tyranny, which Polybius mentioned it as a deteriorated kind of monarchy, “but only that which is voluntarily accepted by the topics and where they are governed rather by an appeal of factor than by worry and force” (Polybius, Hist.6.4). This implied that while the kings and aristocrats ruled with logic and reason, the tyrants and the oligarchs ruled with worry and force because they had no much better method of acquiring power. Tyrants and oligarchs ruled in an unfair and corrupted way by threatening individuals with what were frequently afraid of– death. Therefore, fear and force were undoubtedly among the major components that deteriorated upper class into oligarchy due to the fact that rulers used them to incorrectly rule over the community with the corruption of themselves. This deteriorated upper class and oligarchy in a sense it changed the purpose of the upper class, which was ruling for the benefit of individuals, into deceitful way of judgment with justice becoming unjust and goodness degenerating into badness.
The degeneration and corruption of aristocracy into oligarchy began as quickly as tyranny was toppled by violence, an emotional response containing anger and ferocity, and upper class entered being. Polybius mentioned, “these conspiracies were not the work of the worst males, however of the noblest, most high-spirited, and most brave, because such guys are least able to brook effrontery of princes” (Polybius, Hist. 6.7). When Polybius mentioned these 3 concepts of being the most bold, high-spirited and noblest, he referred to the aristocrats, which was a group of people with wisdom judgment for the benefit of the people of the society with justice and goodness. It was likewise those aristocrats who had thrown over tyranny, a distorted kind of kingship, with an emotional action and made upper class to come in being. This, nevertheless, was a significant catalyst of degeneration of upper class due to the fact that as the upper class entered into being, the components of degeneration, such as greed of gain and dishonest cash making, started to develop.
In Animal Farm, when Napoleon’s routine degenerated into oligarchy from aristocracy, they manipulated the animals through instilling worry and force to the others. For example, when Napoleon and his pigs tried to take the apples and milk from the farm, the pigs lied to the animals by stating that the apples and milk were for the health of pigs. He threatened the animals by saying, “Definitely there is nobody amongst who wants to see Jones come back?” (Orwell, 34). The pigs abused the absence of knowledge of other animals and the fact that they feared the return of Jones to the farm. Pigs utilized worry to accomplish their supremacy over other animals to follow his commands and avoid a disobedience against the pigs. Likewise, when the hens in the Animal Farm rebelled versus the Napoleon’s regime feeling envy, enthusiasm and bitterness by the unreasonable treatment of bitter indignation from the pigs as being asked to lay extreme quantity of legs, hens were starved to death banished.
In Animal Farm, the pigs in Napoleon’s routine corrupted themselves quiting their responsibilities of a ruler and doing things to satisfy their own desires of wealth and power. When pigs dominated the law in their own desire of happiness and home entertainment, they changed among the significant commandments that stated, “All animals are equal” by including “But some animals are more equivalent than others”. (Orwell, 134). Such act of the corrupted pigs formed inequality and developed the hierarchy in the farm. Mentioning that some were more equivalent than others, provided a sense of supremacy of the pigs deserted the duties of the pigs to rule for the benefit of the society. Likewise, when pigs didn’t have a lot of money, they offered Fighter, a persistent worker who got old and sick, to a slaughterer simply to get cash to purchase their own scotch. The pigs plainly used an unethical and unjustified way to earn money, which was to satisfy their greed of wealth, and enjoyment. Degeneration of aristocracy and oligarchy specified by Polybius was clearly reflected in the attribute of Napoleon’s program in Animal Farm. Polybius stated that federal government was inseparable from corruption since federal governments were constantly formed by groups of individuals who had emotions. Rulers undoubtedly fell into greediness and temptation of wealth, power and authority. Pigs launched with great intents of benefitting the community from banishing Jones, who was thought about as a tyrant, and begin a new society of equality drawn by the concept of Old Major, who made regard from other animals for being wise, just and honorable. Yet, when they started to presume that they were above the citizens, they began to corrupt in the provided authority and genetic succession ceasing the equality and raising themselves above the fellow animals. The group of pigs, which Polybius referred as oligarchs, began to govern to benefit themselves rather than for the other animals and dominate the law changing the commandments to comfort themselves. From this, it was particular that the degeneration of aristocracy to oligarchy of the pigs took place in Animal Farm was from the greed of gain, feeling, violence and fear and force from the damaged leaders. Subsequently, this degeneration discussed in Animal Farm paralleled to the theory of Polybius relating to degeneration and corruption of aristocracy and oligarchy.