Language of Robinson Crusoe
Language of Robinson Crusoe Daniel Dafoe’s popular book, originally entitled The Life and Unusual Surprizing Experiences of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who lived 8 and Twenty Years, all alone in an unoccupied Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Coast by Shipwreck, in which all the Guy perished however himself. With an Account how he was at last as strangely provide ‘d by Pyrates (iii), like the majority of classics underwent lots of editions through the years.
Nevertheless nothing but the first edition, which is the basis of this essay, can offer us the look and feel of the time as meant to be revealed by the author. Early Modern English According to Volume 14 of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes, Early Modern English period marked the expansion of the use of the English language outside England. However given that English was spread out at different times it has actually undergone different impacts and additional variations triggered by attempts at etymological spelling (Ward et al ch 15 sec 3 par 1).
These appeared in the book in 2 aspects of language: grammar and vocabulary (Ward et al ch 15 sec 1 par 1-2). Amongst the inflectional modifications throughout the early modern-day English was the dropping of the weak vowel in verbs ending in– ed (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 4 par. 7). Examples of these manifested not only in the title (the word provide ‘d) however within the text itself such as call ‘d, fill ‘d, encreas ‘d, and fatigu had actually. Spelling also appeared to be phonetically faulty (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1) with words like perswasions, lyon, lye, and prophetick.
Intensifying of words were also utilized in the novel by examples of free-school, hand-maids, ground-tackle and fellow-slave. Nevertheless, the change in the verbs along with the defects in spelling was not applied to the entire novel that makes us consider the reasons for such use. Towards a Pureness in Design Daniel Defoe, in his book An Essay upon Projects, stressed that it was the duty of the society to polish and refine the English tongue and to purge it from all the irregular additions that ignorance and affectation have introduced as befitted the noblest and most detailed of all the ulgar languages in the world (8 ). The spread of the English language was illustrated in the novel when Robinson Crusoe teaches his servant Friday the English language. We might discover from an excerpt of their discourse listed below that although essentially Crusoe and Friday came to interact successfully with each other, Friday’s English varies much from Crusoe’s parallel to their difference in status and origin: Friday, My Country beat much, for all that. Master, How beat; if your Country beat them, how come you to be taken?
Friday, They more many than my Nation in the Location where me was; they take one, two, three, and me; my Nation over beat them in the yonder Place, where me no was; there my Nation take one, two, excellent Thousand. Master, But why did not your Side recover you from the Hands of your Enemies then? Friday, They run one, two, 3, and me, and make go in the Canoe; my Nation have no Canoe that time. (Defoe, “Robinson Crusoe” 254) Much is the exact same situation that brought about the variations and additions to the English language in which Defoe is demanding purity (“An Essay upon Projects” 8).
Shoar and Coast. Aside from the malfunctioning spelling mentioned earlier is the variation in the spelling (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1). An example if this is the word shore, spelled shore and shoar, in various context of the book. It may be kept in mind that shoar was only used in the part of Robinson Crusoe’s accidents. That is to say, from the part of his captivity at Sallee up until before his wreck on the island. These incidents, Crusoe later reflected on, were results of his lack of knowledge in the Providence of God and malcontent therefore making use of the spelling shoar.
While his solitary life in the island explained the learning process he underwent to survive and finally live harmoniously with his environments; for this reason the renewed usage of the spelling coast. In this regard, one may interpret that the use of the word was deliberate to reveal the need and trouble in developing a standard for the English language. viz. and (viz. ). Using foreign language in books is rather common throughout the ages. As such, we came to attention on using the Latin word viz. Oxford English Dictionary specifies viz. s the abbreviation of videlicet which usually means particularly or that is to say (1033 ). Although Defoe utilized viz. without parenthesis and viz. in parenthesis based on the very same definition, its involvement in the statement are rather various. The viz. without parenthesis was used in determining and certifying declarations such as the “All the rest of that Day I spent in afflicting my self at the miserable Circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither Food, House, Clothes, Weapon, or Location to fly to …” (“Robinson Crusoe” 82). On the other hand, viz. n parenthesis, which appeared in lines like “This was what I wish ‘d for; so I took them up, and serv ‘d them as we serve well-known Burglars in England, (viz.) Hang ‘d them in Chains for a Terror to others …” (“Robinson Crusoe” 138), was utilized as such in order to discuss earlier declaration. Making use of parenthesis to separate using the exact same word in the novel more shows Defoe’s mission for improvement of the English language as mentioned formerly. Conclusion Certainly, regardless of the plot of the story which categorized it to fiction, the culture and language of the time is apparent.
Robinson Crusoe, in its original variation, enables us the indulgence to peek and appreciate not only the early modern English language however the period too. The versatility of the language then reflected the society of that time as it has always been for any period or era. At the very same time, the novel supplied additional venue for the author to distribute his concepts and more his private effort towards the transition to the modern English language and insertions to the significance of discovering across the spectrum of the society.
Such power language has to affect its readers, whether knowingly or unconsciously. And the duality that the unique showed made it a preferred amongst kids and grownups alike. Fulfilling its goals to amuse and propagate (nevertheless subtle it might be). Works Cited Defoe, Daniel. An Essay Upon Projects. New York: Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. Print.–. The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who lived 8 and Twenty Years, all alone in an ninhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having actually been cast on Coast by Shipwreck, wherein all the Male died however himself. With an Account how he was at last as strangely provide ‘d by Pyrates. London: printed for W. Taylor, 1719. Print. Oxford English Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print. Ward, Aldolphus William, Sir, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1907-21; New York: Bartleby. com, 2000 (Web) April 1, 2009.