The way a person acts can be evaluated by psychoanalysis revealing that there is a structural model of personality; this design was developed by Freud. There are 3 parts of character: Id which contains primitive instincts, Superego which consists of the conscience and Ego which maintains a balance. The Id is based upon the principle of self satisfaction and has no regard for the effect their actions may have on others. The Superego is very moral and in control of what is right and what is incorrect.
The Ego is based upon the principle of reality and is able to have needs and desires however also considers others in their decisions. In the unique, The Lord of the Flies by William Golding, these parts of the personality are represented by the 3 primary characters and it reveals that the contrast in their characters and the absence of a reliable ego results in the breakdown of civilization.
Jack, Ralph, and Piggy all represent this Freudian model and it is the conflict in between these habits that causes the breakdown. The part of the character called the Id is represented primarily by Jack. This part of the character enables the standard needs of a person to be met however all actions are really primitive and are not morally right. Jack is focused on pleasure principle and does not seem to be very worried about long term survival or being saved. Superego, another part of the personality, is represented by Piggy. This part represents the conscience and the ethical part of all humans.
Piggy is typically able to advise a few of the kids what is right and what is wrong. The last part of the character is known as the Ego and is thought about to be the balance between the other two kids. Ralph is the representation of the Ego in this book. This part of the character understands that being impulsive can inevitably be hazardous. Ralph sees the reality of the scenario that they remain in however is likewise able to believe on a realistic level to try and satisfy the needs of the kids. Since he is the Ego, he has the ability to acquire control over the boys and he makes his position known when he states “We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages” (Golding 46). Like the Ego, Ralph believes realistically and desires everybody to believe before they act so no rash actions take place and their
opportunity of surviving and being rescued is greater.
Ralph gets control of the boys on the island in the start of the novel, since of this he is made responsible for handling their survival and well being. One of the main points that he appreciates for their survival is the structure of shelters and he makes this clear when he states “If it rains like when we dropped in we’ll require shelters all right” (52 ). Ralph would like to swim and hunt but he understands that constructing a shelter would be more useful to their survival. He also says that the fire is the most crucial thing on the island (80) and doesn’t believe that they can be rescued by luck if they do not keep the fire going. The fire is likewise a sign of how the kids were still civilized. As the fire begins to head out, the kids end up being less civilized and begin to end up being more primitive, like the Id personality type. Ralph begins to lose his power as he and all the other boys begin to become more irrational. Even though Ralph is the representation of the Ego, he allowed the Id personality to take control of him, “The desire to capture and hurt was over-mastering” (116 ), when he attacked Simon.
When Ralph begins to lose his control, Jack becomes the leader of they young boys. With the Id being in control, there is no reliable ego and the civilization on the island starts to break down. Jack is only worried about power and instant gratification; he doesn’t feel anything for other people and feels only a need to hunt and absolutely nothing else. He triggers continuous condition on the island by appealing the rest of the kids with the lure of meat and searching while tossing survival and the opportunity of being rescued aside. His desire for power is overwhelming and he has no accord for Ralph’s authority. When Piggy is killed, Jack says to Ralph “That’s what you’ll get! I implied that! There isn’t a tribe for you anymore! The conch is gone-” (181 ). He feels absolutely nothing when Piggy is he eliminated and would do anything for the power he obtains. When the conch is destroyed and the young boys start to become uncivilized, the Id becomes the prominent personality type.
Piggy tries to stand up for the guidelines that he was taught to think in and to the Id as the Superego. Piggy sees the conch as order on the island and believes it ought to be respected, he shows this when he says “I got the conch … You let me speak” (42 ). When the boys let the fire go out of control, he makes an effort to inform everyone that they were wrong for letting that take place which they also let one of the little’ uns get away. He continuously challenges the Id and attempts to stand up for what he believes to be right. The balance in between his ideas and Jack’s likewise helped to keep the island stable but when Piggy was eliminated, the Id ends up being dominant and the boys begin to lose control.
With Ralph being the balance between Jack and Piggy, he is determined as the leader when the kids first show up on the island but as time passes the young boys start to end up being more uncivilized. The lack of a genuine authoritative figure or an adult figure triggers the boys to lean more towards the Id. When this occurs, the kids begin to follow Jack since he offers pleasure principle in the form of hunting and meat. Jack seems to be able to do anything for his power. Jack’s resistance to morals and control cause Piggy’s death and the damage of the conch. When Piggy passes away, there no longer is a Superego on the island and the balance in between them is broken. Ralph is not dominant enough as an Ego to keep the island civilized. This permits Jack and the Id to take control of the young boys and the island, and this causes the breakdown of civilization.